The University of Arizona  1993-95 General Catalog

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Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (ECOL)
Biological Sciences West Building, Room 310
(520) 621-9328

Professors Margaret G. Kidwell, Head, William A. Calder, III, E.
Lendell Cockrum (Emeritus), William B. Heed, (Emeritus), John R.
Hendrickson (Emeritus), Conrad A. Istock, Charles H. Lowe, Jr.,
Albert R. Mead (Emeritus), Richard E. Michod, Walter B. Miller
(Emeritus), Michael L. Rosenzweig, William M. Schaffer, Donald A.
Thomson, Arthur T. Winfree, Newell A. Younggren (Emeritus)

Associate Professors Russell Davis, Robert S. Mellor, Nancy A.
Moran, Irene M. Pepperberg, Robert H. Robichaux, Stephen M.
Russell (Emeritus), D. Lawrence Venable, David J. A. Vleck, J.
Bruce Walsh, Oscar G. Ward

Assistant Professors Judith L. Bronstein, Lucinda McDade, Wayne
Maddison, Daniel R. Papaj 

Lecturer C. William Gaddis

The Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology provides
general and professional education for those intending to pursue
graduate study or for those planning a career in fields where
training in basic or applied organismic, evolutionary and
environmental biology is necessary or desirable. Courses in
population, community and physiological ecology, behavior,
population theory, biogeography, natural history, genetics,
systematics, morphology, and evolution are offered. In addition
to excellent instructional facilities on campus, the department
uses the Marine Biology Station at Puerto Penasco, Sonora,
Mexico; the Southwestern Research Station at Portal, Arizona; the
Boyce-Thompson Arboretum at Superior, Arizona and the Research
Ranch at Elgin, Arizona. It also curates excellent regional
collections of plants and animals.

The department administers the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of
Science degrees with majors in ecology and evolutionary biology
and the Bachelor of Science degree in general biology. The
department also administers advanced degrees, the Master of
Science and Doctor of Philosophy in ecology and evolutionary
biology, and botany.

The major in general biology for the Bachelor of Science degree
provides a broad background covering aspects of molecular,
cellular, organismic, physiological, ecological, and evolutionary
biology. The requirements are: 181R, 182, 302, 304, 320; MCB 410
or BIOC 460 or 462a and additional upper-division units to a
minimum of 35 in the major. These elective units may be selected
from the departments of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology,
Molecular and Cellular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry and
other departments upon the approval of the major advisor. No more
than four of these elective units may be taken as 399 or 499
(independent study).

Also required are courses for a supporting structured minor in
chemistry/physics/mathematics: CHEM 103a-103b, 104a-104b, 241a-
241b, 243a-243b; PHYS 104a-104b, 180a-180b; MATH 125a-125b.

Within the general biology major, emphases are available in the
following areas: botany, environmental biology, physiology,
zoology, invertebrate zoology, marine biology, predentistry,
premedicine, and other appropriate preprofessional preparation
may be pursued.

The major in ecology and evolutionary biology for the Bachelor of
Science degree is designed primarily for students who plan to
pursue graduate study in ecology and evolutionary biology or a
related science. The requirements for the major are 181R, 182,
302, 304, 320, 435, and at least 12 additional upper-division
units must be selected upon consultation with the major advisor
for a total of 35. These elective courses may be selected from
the departments of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Molecular
and Cellular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry and other
departments upon the approval of the major advisor. No more than
four of these elective units may be taken as 399 or 499
(independent study).

Also required are courses for a supporting structured minor in
chemistry/physics/mathematics: CHEM 103a-103b, 104a-104b; PHYS
104a-104b, or 110, 116, and 121; MATH 125a-125b, 223 or STAT 263.
At least 6 additional units of mathematics or nonbiological
science are also required. 

The major in ecology and evolutionary biology for the Bachelor of
Arts degree is designed for students with interests in natural
history and the biological sciences who may not wish to continue
with graduate study. The requirements for the major are 181R,
182, 320 and 302 or 304, and 16 upper-division elective units
from the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology or from
other appropriate departments with the approval of the major
advisor, totalling 32 units in the major. No more than four of
these elective units may be taken as 399 or 499 (independent
study).

Also required are courses for a supporting structured minor in
Chemistry/Physics/Mathematics are: CHEM 103a-103b, 104a-104b;
PHYS 102a-102b; MATH 117R/S, 118, and one course from 119, 123,
125a, 263.

Biology secondary education teaching major: The requirements for
the major are 181R, 182, 320 or PL S 312, 401, and a teaching
biology laboratory, for a total of 16 units, and a minimum of 17
additional units of upper division course electives. These
elective units must be selected from the following four subject
matter areas: (1) biological perspectives; (2) cell/molecular;
(3) organismic; (4) ecology/evolution. Three units must be taken
from area 1, with selection of the remaining 14 units from at
least two of the areas 2, 3 or 4. At least one of the courses
must be a laboratory course. The current advisor for the
undergraduate biology teaching major in the Department of Ecology
and Evolutionary Biology will maintain a list of acceptable
courses in each of the four elective areas. Courses currently
available in area 1 are: 421, 479, MCB 404.

The teaching minor: The associated structured minor builds on the
interdisciplinary prerequisite courses implicit in the biology
teaching major and consists of the following courses: CHEM 103a-
103b, 104a-104b, 241a-241b, PHYS 102a-102b, MATH 125a, 263.

 The department participates in the honors program.

100. Biology Concepts (4) I II S Levels of biological
organization from biosphere to atoms provide a framework around
which are developed concepts of diversity and unity of life
forms, genetic continuity and evolutionary change, and the
interdependent nature of ecosystem components. Nonscience majors
orientation. 3R, 3L. Field trips.

105R. Introductory Botany  (3) II Structure, function,
development, and economic importance of flowering plants; brief
overview of plant diversity. 3R. 105R must be taken concurrently
with 105L to satisfy general education science requirements.

105L. Introductory Botany Laboratory (1) II Study of botanical
materials, involving observation, experimentation and data
analysis. Non-majors orientation. 3L. P, CR 105R.

108. Plants and Society (3) II Lecture-demonstration course on
the interrelationships between plants and man; discussion of
plants as a source of food, fiber, drugs and other products;
plants for esthetic value, survival and energy.

123. Introduction to Evolution (2) II Study of the directional
and random forces that lead to adaptation within populations,
speciation between populations, and quantum differences between
major groups. The origin of life and the products of the
evolutionary ages are not covered. P, cursory knowledge of
Mendelian genetics recommended.

130. Natural History of the Southwest (3) I Elementary biology of
the common plants and animals of the Southwest; identification,
distribution, ecology. 2R, 2L. Field trips.

181L. Introductory Biology Laboratory (3) I (Identical with MCB
181L)

181R. Introductory Biology I (3) I (Identical with MCB 181R)

182. Introductory Biology II (4) II Origin, diversity and
evolution of life; physiology of plants, animals and organ
systems; processes of micro and macroevolution; animal behavior
and ecology of populations and communities emphasizing biotic
interactions and biogeography. Designed for biology majors. 3R,
3L. High school biology recommended. Field trips. (Identical with
BIOC 182, MCB 182, MIC 182)

183. Marine Biology (3) I Survey of the marine environment and
its biotic communities, with emphasis on the natural history of
marine organisms. 2R, 3L. Weekend field trip.

195. Colloquium
c. Society and Science (1) I II (Identical with BIOC 195c, which
is home)

206. Environmental Biology (4) I Fundamentals of ecology and
their relevance to human impact on natural ecosystems. Nonmajors
orientation. 3R, 3L. Field trips.

260. Elementary Plant Physiology (4) I Functions, nutrition,
metabolism, and development of higher plants. 3R, 3L. P, 181 and
182, or PL S 100; CHEM 101b, 102b.

302. Ecology (4) I Single species population biology,
competition, predation and mutualism, community and organization,
behavioral ecology and evolutionary ecology. 3R, 3L. P, 182, MATH
125a-125b.

304. Organismic Biology (4) II Structure, function, development,
and economic value of flowering plants; structure, function, and
development of animals; brief survey of the plant and animal
kingdoms. 3R, 3L. P, 181 and 182, CHEM 103b-104b. Consult
department before enrolling.

320. Genetics (4) I The principles that govern the inheritance of
all living organisms including molecular, chromosomal,
organismal, population and evolutionary aspects of genetics with
laboratory experience and problem solving. 3R, 3L. P, 181 and
182, CHEM 103b, 104b. (Identical with MCB 320) 

401. Biological Materials (2) I Study of new methods in
instruction and ideas on course content and behavioral
objectives. Designed for prospective bio. teachers in secondary
schools. 1R, 3L. P, 12 units of biology. May be convened with
501.

403R. Biology of Animal Parasites (3) I (Identical with V SC
403R) May be convened with 503R.

403L. Parasitology Laboratory (1) I (Identical with V SC 403L)
May be convened with 503L.

405. Aquatic Entomology (3) II 1994-95 (Identical with ENTO 405)
May be convened with 505.

406. Conservation Biology (3) II 1994-95 Principles of biology
applied to preservation of biological diversity. Field trips. P,
182, 302. (Identical with RNR 406 and GEOS 406) May be convened
with 506.

410. Research Design and Analysis (3) I Design and analysis for
ecology, behavior, and morphology; inference and hypothesis
tests; exploratory statistics. May be convened with 510.

411. Insect Behavior (3) II 1993-94 (Identical with ENTO 411) May
be convened with 511.

412. Plants Useful to Man (2) S Lecture-demonstration course for
teachers and others wishing information on the uses of plants:
foods and food plants, medicinal plants, plants and industry,
plants in textiles and other manufacturers. May be convened with
512.

414. Plants of the Desert (2) S Designed for teachers and others
wishing to become familiar with common native and cultivated
plants; identification, ecology, and uses. May be convened with
514.

416. Computer Analysis of Sequences (3) II (Identical with MCB
416). May be convened with 516.

418a-418b. Scientific Illustration (2 to 4--2 to 4) [Rpt.]
Graphic arts techniques to meet the career demands of students.
418a: Illustration. 418b: Photography. Consult dept. before
enrolling. May be convened with 518a-518b.

420. Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics (4) II Rigorous coverage
of the inheritance and evolution of quantitative characters. 
Theory, estimation and design issues, and experimental results
given equal coverage. P, Calculus. May be convened with 520.

421. Philosophy of the Biological Sciences (3) 1993-94 (Identical
with PHIL 421) May be convened with 521.

423. Cytogenetics (3) II Investigation into the structure and
function of chromosomes and their role in heredity and evolution.
2R, 3L. P, 320. (Identical with GENE 423) May be convened with
523.

428. Microbial Genetics (3) II (Identical with PL P 428).

431. Environmental Physiology (2) II 1993-94 Analysis and
synthesis of recent studies of the physiological responses of
animals to their environments. P, 468. May be convened with 531.

433. Human Genetics (3) I (Identical with GENE 433) May be
convened with 533.

434. Population Interactions (4) [Rpt.] II 1994-95 Empirical and
theoretical treatment of competition, exploitation, and mutualism
within and between species, with emphasis on application of
modern dynamics to ecological problems. Computer lab. 3R, 3L. P,
302, two semesters of calculus. May be convened with 534.

435. Evolution (3) I A balanced survey of the present-day
concepts of the process and products of evolution, with emphasis
on contrasting models and their consequences; recent techniques
for the elucidation of phylogenetic pathways. P, 302, 320; MATH
125a, P or CR, 125b. (Identical with GENE 435) May be convened
with 535.

436. Plant Ecology (4) II Dynamic processes giving rise to
ecological patterns in plant populations and communities. 2R, 6L.
Field trips. P, some botany and general ecology. May be convened
with 536.

437. Vertebrate Physiology (4) I Basic principles of vertebrate
physiology dealing particularly with physiological homeostatis
maintained by interactions of complex organ systems. 3R, 2D. P,
181, 182. (Identical with MCB 437, TOX 437, V SC 437) Writing-
Emphasis Course.*

438. Biogeography (3) II The role of historical events and
ecological processes in determining the past and present
geographic distribution of plants and animals. P, 182 or GEOS
225. (Identical with GEOS 438) May be convened with 538.

440R. Oceanography (2) I 1994-95 Introduction to the physical,
chemical, geological, and biological dimensions of the oceans,
with emphasis on their importance as biological environments. May
be convened with 540R.

440L. Oceanography Laboratory (2) I 1994-95 Field and lab.
investigations of the Gulf of California, with emphasis on
research techniques important to biological oceanography. Weekend
field trips. P, 440R or CR. May be convened with 540L. Writing-
Emphasis Course.*

441. Limnology (4) I (Identical with WFSC 441) May be convened
with 541.

442. Marine Ecology (6) S A field introduction to basic concepts
in marine ecology with emphasis on the behavior and ecology of
invertebrates and fishes and the factors affecting the diversity
and community structure of marine communities. The entire course
is conducted at selected sites in the Gulf of California.
Optional travel fee. Consult instructor before enrolling. May be
convened with 542.

444. Insect Ecology (3) I (Identical with ENTO 444) May be
convened with 544.

458. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4) I (Identical with V SC
458) May be convened with 558.

459. Comparative Vertebrate Histology (4) II (Identical with V SC
459) May be convened with 559.

460. Plant Physiology (4) I (Identical with PL S 460) May be
convened with 560.

466. Physiology Laboratory (3) II Emphasis on data acquisition,
analysis and interpretation. Laboratory techniques and
investigation of physiological mechanisms. 2R, 4L. P, either 437,
468; V SC 400a-400b; or PSIO 480. (Identical with MCB 466, PSIO
466, TOX 466, V SC 466) May be convened with 566.

468. Comparative Physiology (3) II The responses of physiological
systems to the environment; energy exchanges, respiration,
thermal and osmotic regulation, locomotion, behavioral
regulation, and integration of responses. P, either 437, V SC
400a-400b, or PSIO 480. (Identical with PSIO 468 and V SC 468)
May be convened with 568.

470. Plant Diversity and Evolution (4) I Survey of the plant
kingdom, with emphasis on comparative structure and evolution of
major plant divisions. 2R, 6L. Field trips. P, 4 units of
biological or plant sciences. May be convened with 570.

471. Human Embryology (4) II (Identical with ANAT 471) May be
convened with 571.

472. Systematic Botany (4) II Evolutionary relationships of
orders and families of spermatophytes; systems of classification;
collection and identification of local flora. 2R, 6L. May be
convened with 572.

474. Animal-Human Communication (3) II Survey of animal-human
communication studies. Critical discussion of papers describing
the rationale, design and success of projects involving nonhuman
primates, marine mammals, and a parrot, supplemented by films and
videos. Background material on animal-animal communication and
animal intelligence. Emphasis on what can be learned about human
and nonhuman capacities from studying how animals acquire and use
human communication systems. P, 487 or equivalent, or
instructor's permission. (Identical with PSYC 474) May be
convened with 574.

475. Freshwater Algae (4) II 1993-94 Systematics, ecology, and
evolution of planktonic and benthic species; field techniques and
lab. culture. 2R, 6L. Field trips. P, 4 units of biology or plant
sciences. (Identical with SW 475) May be convened with 575.
Writing-Emphasis Course.*

478. Global Change (3) II (Identical with GEOS 478) May be
convened with 578.

479. Art of Scientific Discovery (3) [Rpt.] II Techniques of
posing questions and solving puzzles encountered in scientific
research, with emphasis on life sciences and mathematics. P,
consult with department before enrolling. May be convened with
579.

480. Invertebrate Zoology (4) I Comparative morphology,
physiology, and ecology of invertebrates. 3R, 3L. Field trips. P,
182. May be convened with 580.

482. Ichthyology (4) I 1993-94 Ecology, evolution and systematics
of fishes, with field and lab. emphasis on Gulf of California and
Arizona fishes. 2R, 6L. Weekend field trips. P, 182. (Identical
with WFSC 482) May be convened with 582. Writing-Emphasis
Course.*

483. Herpetology (4) II Systematics, ecology, and evolution of
the amphibians and reptiles. 2R, 6L or field work. P, 304.
(Identical with WFSC 483) May be convened with 583.

484. Ornithology (4) II Natural history of birds and its bearing
upon the problems of animal behavior, distribution, and
evolution. 2R, 2L. Field trips. P, one basic biology course.
(Identical with WFSC 484) May be convened with 584. Writing-
Emphasis Course.*

485. Mammalogy (4) I Systematics, ecology, and evolution of
mammals. 2R, 6L or field work. P, 304. (Identical with WFSC 485)
May be convened with 585. Writing-Emphasis Course.*

487. Animal Behavior (3) I Concepts and principles of the
evolution, development, causation and function of behavior, with
emphasis on the adaptiveness of behavior; discussion and films.
P, 8 units of biology. May be convened with 587. Writing-Emphasis
Course.*

488. Arizona Mammals (3) S The identification, distribution, and
ecology of Arizona mammals. Field trip. P, 182. May be convened
with 588.

489. Selected Studies of Birds (2) [Rpt.] I Recent advances in
ornithology. 1R, 3L or field trip. P, 484. (Identical with WFSC
489) May be convened with 589.

490. Quantitative Morphology (3) II 1994-95 Methods for studying
form variation and diversification; size-shape relationships;
theoretical morphology. May be convened with 590.

494. Practicum
a. Professional Skills (2) I (Identical with ENTO 494a, which is
home) May be convened with 594a. Writing-Emphasis Course*

496. Seminar
d. Selected Topics in Marine Biology (1-4) [Rpt./6 units] II
Field trips. Fee. P, junior or senior ecology majors. May be
convened with 596d. Writing-Emphasis Course only if taken for 3-4
units.*
j. Plant Population Ecology (1-3) [Rpt./5] I P, some introductory
botany, ecology, and permission of instructor. May be convened
with 596j.
p. Macroevolution (2) [Rpt./6 units] I II (Identical with GEOS
496p) May be convened with 596p.

*Writing-Emphasis Course. P, satisfaction of the upper-division
writing-proficiency requirement (see "Writing-Emphasis Courses"
in the Academic Policies and Graduation Requirements section of
this catalog).

497. Workshop
a. Undergraduate Teaching Training in Ecology and Evolutionary
Biology (1-5) [Rpt./12 units] I II S P, consult department before
enrolling.

500a-500b. Topics in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (4-4) 500a:
Introduction to graduate study in ecology and evolutionary
biology, via discussion of ongiong faculty research interests.
500b: Introduction to field research methods in ecology. Field
trips.

501. Biological Materials (2) I For a description of course
topics, see 401. Graduate-level requirements include the design
and presentation of a unique and challenging laboratory
experience appropriate for a secondary school biology course. P,
12 units of biology. May be convened with 401.

503R. Biology of Animal Parasites (3) I (Identical with V SC
503R) May be convened with 403R.

503L. Parasitology Laboratory (1) I (Identical with V SC 503L)
May be convened with 403L.

505. Aquatic Entomology (3) II 1994-95 (Identical with ENTO 505)
May be convened with 405.

506. Conservation Biology (3) II 1994-95 For description of
course topics, see 406. Graduate-level requirements include a
research paper. P, 182, 302. (Identical with RNR 506 and GEOS
506) May be convened with 406.

510. Research Design and Analysis (3) I For a description of
course topics, see 410. Graduate-level requirements include a
research project. May be convened with 410.

511. Insect Behavior (3) II 1993-94 (Identical with ENTO 511) May
be convened with 411.

512. Plants Useful to Man (2) S For a description of course
topics, see 412. Graduate-level requirements include a research
paper. May be convened with 412.

514. Plants of the Desert (2) S For a description of course
topics, see 414. Graduate-level requirements include a research
paper on a relevant topic. May be convened with 414.

516. Computer Analysis of Sequences (3) II (Identical with MCB
516). May be convened with 416.

518a-518b. Scientific Illustration (2 to 4--2 to 4) [Rpt.] For a
description of course topics, see 418a-418b. Graduate-level
requirements include the production of maps, graphs, and drawings
for the thesis, seminars, and scientific papers. May be convened
with 418a-418b.

519. Molecular Evolution and Genome Organization (3) II 1994-95 A
rigorous and comprehensive survey of both the molecular and
evolutionary details of genome organization. P, 320, year of
calculus.

520. Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics (4) II 1994-95 For a
description of course topics, see 420. Graduate-level
requirements include a research paper. P, Calculus. May be
convened with 420.

521. Philosophy of the Biological Sciences (3) 1993-94 (Identical
with PHIL 521) May be convened with 421.

523. Cytogenetics (3) II For a description of course topics, see
423. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research
paper on a current problem in cytogenetics. P, 320. (Identical
with GENE 523) May be convened with 423.

524. Theoretical Population Genetics (3) I Mathematical theory of
modern population genetics developed from first principles, with
emphasis on evolutionary implications and the historical
development of ideas. P, 320, MATH 223.  (Identical with ANTH 524
and GENE 524)

525. Speciation (2) [Rpt.] II Mechanisms of evolution in the
formation of races and species of animals and plants. P, 320.
(Identical with GENE 525)

531. Environmental Physiology (2) II 1993-94 For a description of
course topics, see 431. Graduate-level requirements include an
in-depth analytical or research paper. P, 568. May be convened
with 431. 

533. Human Genetics (3) I (Identical with GENE 533) May be
convened with 433.

534. Population Interactions (4) [Rpt.] II 1994-95 For a
description of course topics, see 434. Graduate-level
requirements include independent study of a model or data
ecological system to be specified by the professor. P, 302, two
semesters of calculus. May be convened with 434.

535. Evolution (3) I For a description of course topics, see 435.
Graduate-level requirements include two term papers, the subject
to be determined by the professor. P, 302, 320; MATH 125a, P or
CR, 125b. (Identical with GENE 535) May be convened with 435.

536. Plant Ecology (4) II For a description of course topics, see
436. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth library
research paper. P, some botany and general ecology. May be
convened with 436.

538. Biogeography (3) II For a description of course topics, see
438. Graduate-level requirements include a research paper. P, 182
or GEOS 225. (Identical with GEOS 538) May be convened with 438.

540R. Oceanography (2) I 1994-95 For a description of course
topics, see 440R. Graduate-level requirements include an
additional literature paper on a modern aspect of oceanography.
May be convened with 440R.

540L. Oceanography Laboratory (2) I 1994-95 For a description of
course topics, see 440L. Graduate-level requirements include an
in-depth research paper project on a single aspect of the course
topic. P, 540R or CR. May be convened with 440L.

541. Limnology (4) I (Identical with WFSC 541) May be convened
with 441.

542. Marine Ecology (6) S For a description of course topics, see
442. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research
project on a single aspect of the course topic. Optional travel
fee. May be convened with 442.

543. Advanced Studies in Marine Biology (2) [Rpt.] I Analysis and
discussion of current research in the marine biological sciences.

544. Insect Ecology (3) I (Identical with ENTO 544) May be
convened with 444.

545. Concepts in Genetic Analysis (3) I (Identical with MCB 545)

550. Mathematical Population Dynamics (4) II 1993-94 Ecological
population dynamics, demography and human epidemiology. Emphasis
on mathematical models and techniques for data analysis with
particular reference to dynamical systems and chaos. 3R, 3L. P,
full calculus sequence, upper-level ecology course (302) or
ordinary differential equations (MATH 254 or 355) (Identical with
MATH 550)

558. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4) I (Identical with V SC
558) May be convened with 458.

559. Comparative Vertebrate Histology (4) II (Identical with V SC
559) May be convened with 459.

560. Plant Physiology (4) I (Identical with PL S 560) May be
convened with 460.

566. Physiology Laboratory (3) II For a description of course
topics, see 466. Graduate-level requirements include students
completing a series of directed laboratory exercises, then
designing and carrying out an experiment of their own. 2R, 4L. P,
either 437, 468; V SC 400a-400b; or PSIO 480.(Identical with MCB
566, PSIO 566, TOX 566, V SC 566) May be convened with 466.

568. Comparative Physiology (3) II For a description of course
topics, see 468. Graduate-level requirements include an
additional literature review paper on a modern aspect of
comparative physiology. P, 181, 182. (Identical with PSIO 568 and
V SC 568) May be convened with 468.

570. Plant Diversity and Evolution (4) I For a description of
course topics, see 470. Graduate-level requirements include a
research paper on a relevant topic. Field trips. P, 4 units of
biology or plant sciences. May be convened with 470.

571. Human Embryology (4) II (Identical with ANAT 571) May be
convened with 471.

572. Systematic Botany (4) II For a description of course topics,
see 472. Graduate-level requirements include either an additional
research project or literature review paper on a modern aspect of
systematic biology. May be convened with 472.

574. Animal-Human Communication (3) II For a description of
course topics, see 474.  Graduate-level requirements include a
research paper. (Identical with PSYC 574) May be convened with
474.

575. Freshwater Algae (4) II 1993-94 For a description of course
topics, see 475. Graduate-level requirements include a special
topic report on an aspect of freshwater algae. Field trips. P, 4
units of biology or plant sciences. May be convened with 475.

578. Global Change (3) II (Identical with GEOS 578) May be
convened with 478.

579. Art of Scientific Discovery (3) [Rpt.] II For a description
of course topics, see 479. Graduate-level requirements include
use of all techniques in a semester-long research project and
final paper. P, consult with department before enrolling. May be
convened with 479.

580. Invertebrate Zoology (4) I For a description of course
topics, see 480. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth
research project on a modern aspect of invertebrate zoology. P,
182. May be convened with 480.

582. Ichthyology (4) 1993-94 I For a description of course
topics, see 482. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth
research project on a single aspect of the course topic. P, 182.
(Identical with WFSC 582) May be convened with 482.

583. Herpetology (4) II For a description of course topics, see
483. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth paper. P,
304. (Identical with WFSC 583) May be convened with 483.

584. Ornithology (4) II For a description of course topics, see
484. Graduate-level requirements include an oral presentation of
the results of an independent research project. Field trips. P,
one basic biology course. (Identical with WFSC 584) May be
convened with 484.

585. Mammalogy (4) I For a description of course topics, see 485.
Graduate-level requirements include an exercise in mammalian
taxonomy and a higher level of performance. P, 304. (Identical
with WFSC 585) May be convened with 485.

586. Biological Scaling (2-3) II 1994-95 Evolution of body size
and the scaling of physiological, morphological, and ecological
requirements, biomechanics, functional morphology, and
dimensional analysis. P, 302.

587. Animal Behavior (3) I For a description of course topics,
see 487. Graduate-level requirements include either an additional
research project or literature review paper on a modern aspect of
animal behavior. P, 8 units of biology. May be convened with 487.

588. Arizona Mammals (3) S For a description of course topics,
see 488. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research
paper. P, 182. May be convened with 488.

589. Selected Studies of Birds (2) [Rpt.] I For a description of
course topics, see 489. Graduate-level requirements include an
in-depth presentation of a single aspect of the course topic. P,
484. (Identical with WFSC 589) May be convened with 489.

590.  Quantitative Morphology (3) II 1994-95 For a description of
course topics, see 490. Graduate-level requirements include a
research project, paper, and oral report. May be convened with
490.

594. Practicum
a. Professional Skills (2) I (Identical with ENTO 594a, which is
home) May be convened with 494a.

596. Seminar
a. Evolutionary Ecology (1-2) [Rpt./5] II 1994-95
b. Population Biology (1) [Rpt./6] I II Open to majors only.
d. Selected Topics in Marine Biology (1-4) [Rpt./6 units] II
Field trips. P, junior or senior ecology majors. May be convened
with 496d.
j. Plant Population Ecology (1-3) [Rpt./5] I. May be convened
with 496j.
m. Conservation Biology (1) [Rpt./6 units] II Field trip.
(Identical with RNR 596m. Macroevolution (2) [Rpt./6 units] I II
(Identical with GEOS 596p) May be convened with 496p)

610a-610b. Research in Ecology and Evolution (1-1) [Rpt.] I II
Introduction to the research currently being pursued by faculty
and staff in the department. Open to majors only.

670. Recent Advances in Genetics (2) I (Identical with GENE 670)

 


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